Juliette Spertus trained as an architect and has spent the last decade leading efforts to incorporate waste systems into urban design. In 2010, she organized the exhibit Fast Trash: Roosevelt Island’s Pneumatic Tubes and the Future of Cities (archived at fasttrash.org). After raising the profile of pneumatic collection, she founded the research and planning firm, ClosedLoops with environmental policy expert Benjamin Miller. Their work, including a stakeholder-led initiative to retrofit the High Line, is published in peer reviewed journals and cited in policy documents. In 2017, ClosedLoops co-authored New York City’s Zero Waste Design Guidelines with lead Clare Miflin of ThinkWoven and Christina Grace of Foodprint Group. The team continues to collaborate through the Center for Zero Waste Design. In 2019, Juliette joined the New York City Housing Authority to oversee design and implementation of the pneumatic collection pilot outlined in the NYCHA 2.0 Waste Management Plan.