A term used in "Dross City", and employed to describe foreign matter, or a "phantom material condition" that goes unnoticed.1 It not only describes waste, but also the extent to which it has merged with urban and natural landscapes, as well as the roles that it plays in our lifestyles. Different aspects of waste are explored throughout the readings. "From Pollution to Housing" focuses on by-products, and their potential as building materials that cheapen construction costs and reduce pollution. The reading also delves into the issue of scarcity of raw material, and how, in times of need, our perspective of waste shifts, to reveal that sometimes what we consider garbage is in fact, a resource. In "Powers of the Hoard", Jane Bennet explores what can be described as pre-expired products, or products rendered useless by their excess, weather they've reached the end of their useful life or not. The author also scrutinizes the compelling force "acting" objects can have on consumers, and she reveals the shifting nature of an object that can be considered trash as much as it can be considered a valuable, depending of the subject that beholds it. Lastly, Pawley explores the possibility of turning current production processes into a looped system that employs discarded products as building materials, and how consumerism can be taken advantage of, and turned into a solution that alleviates housing shortage.